The steps involved in the Kirchhoff migration algorithm are listed below: Then fusing the three migrated coefficients, we can obtain subsurface colour-coded reconstructed object images, which can be employed to interpret both the geometrical information and the scattering mechanism of the subsurface objects. The Moho is essentially flat along the entire transect. Introduction Ground penetrating radar GPR is widely used in detecting subsurface objects such as buried landmines. The non-uniform nature of the wavenumber space requires linear interpolation before the regular fast Fourier transform FFT could be applied.
Kirchhoff and F-K migration to focus ground penetrating radar images
VS gave research idea, helped in algorithm development and reviewed the manuscript. Add to favourites Login to add to favourites Save links to your favourite articles. This shows F-K migrated data gives better results than Kirchhoff algorithm. Invalid site public key. The common name for this process is called migration or focusing [ 3 , 4 ]. Wave equation formulation of synthetic aperture radar SAR algorithms in the time-space domain.
Reverse time migration imaging of ground-penetrating radar data in complex envir
The - A tries to constitute a 3D Fourier transform relationship between the image at the object space and the collected scattered field. This process is reiterated until all pixels on the original GPR image are passed through the algorithm. If Th 1 is the only threshold, it is inevitable that the detected root will be cracked. If the propagating medium is homogeneous, the parabolic hyperbola in the GPR image can be characterized by the following equation when the radar is moving on a straight path along -axis. There are other reasons for difficultly discriminating coarse roots from dense areas with strong amplitudes. It can be shown mathematically that the - A provides the same solution set as in the case of KM.
Application to tomb detection. Section 5 is dedicated to discussions and the conclusion. Meanwhile, the total biomass of roots within the 30—50 cm depth range is under-estimated because of energy attenuation of the electromagnetic wave in the soil and interference of the shallow roots. The main aim of the paper is to evaluate and compare the migration algorithms over different focusing methods such that the reader can decide which algorithm to use for a particular application of GPR. In assessing the speed of the algorithms, we observe similar performances as in the case of the simulation results that are listed in Table 1. Therefore, an interpolation procedure should also be applied to be able to use the FFT for fast processing of the collected dataset. Therefore, only single FT operation is required at one point when for the focused image.